The Economist 词汇解析(11)

– 1 –

本期原文选自The Economist 2016-9-10的Leaders板块Art of the
lie,释义来自清华高阶七版、伯明翰希伯来高阶学习词典英汉双解第3版、朗文双解词典、Collins词典等资源。若是您也在就学The
Economist,欢迎订阅我的文集The
Economist
,一起念书交换。

冥想,并不神乎

几年前,一个情侣跟自家说,他工作压力相比较大,于是有每日打坐冥想的习惯,冥想可以扶助她保管心境,进步专注力和自制力,保持头脑的清醒。我感到惊奇,在我回忆中,他在职场里工作得百步穿杨,对生活也挺有掌控力,竟也学起了打坐冥想。

自己问那位朋友,你冥想的时候在冥想怎样?

他说:“冥想的时候,关心内在,专注自己的透气,想象自己吸食过多氧气,氧气散发到全身的逐条细胞,感觉温馨肉体逐步在集结元气。。。‘’还有想象美好的气象等等”。目前三次,我问那位朋友,你还在持之以恒冥想呢?他说现在时常陪伴子女,没有何样时间冥想。其实,我想分享给他,更便于收益和持之以恒的冥想。

那时候自己开端了然,冥想已经是非亲非故禅修或教派了,也不是瑜伽习练者才故意的操练。它正在职场中更是受青眼。

您恐怕也早已知晓,篮球健性病科比、苹果 总监Jobs、传媒大亨默多克、等有名气的人都有每一日冥想的习惯。在美利坚合众国,有好多商业奇才将冥想奉为最实惠的解决压力和饱满委顿的格局,谷歌(Google)、AMD、苹果等营业所,很多员工都学习冥想课程,并将它就是开发立异能力的有效措施。

冥想有许五种方法,大家不领悟那个处于各领域超级地方的人,每一日怎么着生存,怎样冥想,那也不是咱们研讨的靶子。可是一些冥想方法真的能扶助大家获取内心的熨帖,安定纷纷冗杂的笔触,让大脑得以放松和休养,继而进行更使得的工作和文章。

– 2 – 

Art of the lie

Consider how far Donald Trump is estranged from【1】 fact. He
inhabits a fantastical realm where Barack Obama’s birth certificate
was faked, the president founded Islamic State (IS), the Clintons are
killers and the father of a rival was with Lee Harvey Oswald before he
shot John F. Kennedy.

怎么是冥想?

仍有过几人,一听到冥想,立马联想到打坐,并在一定条件下进展静默陶冶,担心很难学习,望而却步。

究竟什么是冥想呢?
我想,可以大致地了然为,把心情意念放在特定的目的上。如关怀呼吸的呼吸冥想,想象某种美好景观,或冥想幸福时光以深化正向心念的幸福冥想、等等。

确定性,冥想并不是怎么着都不想,当您让投机如何都不想的时候,就曾经在想了。

而你知道吗?当你生活中遇见了退步,你一向执着题材本身,爆发悲观、埋怨、悔恨的想法,而不是摸索解决办法,痛心、焦虑不安的感想不断在被激化,你便是在做“乌黑冥想”!

故此冥想的目的是怎么,很要紧。当然,大家一般谈冥想的时候,不是指负面的冥想。

大家也足以把冥想通晓为一个内向修养的进程,在广大的大费周折方法中,人们愿意从中所收益的,无异于得到内在的平静、深度释压、更好地处理生活中的难点等。例如,也有人使用冥想来戒掉生活中的不良嗜好。但并不是装有的煞费苦心方法都能水滴石穿收益。

本人曾听过这样一个故事:在新疆的某部地方,山上有一处禅修的静地,深受向往。有天一位酗酒的经纪人慕名而来,在山头安然地度过了几天,通过冥想磨练战胜对酒精的执念。但下山之后,又控制不了自己延续喝酒,没有章程。他又上山继续冥想训练,下山后又三番五次喝酒。此后,他每一趟想起要戒酒的时候就往山上去,然后下山的时候享受酒精。。。我也不领会最后究竟怎么着了。

冥想练习,也不用意味着要盘腿而坐、闭目锁眉,甚至到深山老林般的静谧之地才能冥想。生活的无暇,和情感意念总是追求新鲜事物的本来面目,让大家很难能把一般的千方百计操练持之以恒下来。

有的是时候,当大家尽力地试图不去想事情、刻意地集中注意力,往往连接以失望收场。

那大家能否寻找到一种,简便易学,不难锲而不舍实施,而又有所意义的冥思苦想?答案是一些。

– 3 – 

【1】estranged from
与(某事)脱离,与(某人)疏远;其它estranged还有分居的意趣;名词为estrangement

认识瑜伽语音冥想

从前,我有很长一段时间经历着麻烦入睡的麻烦。每一趟睡觉以前,许多缠绕于生存阅历的想法和动机在脑英里翻涌,思维像是被着力抽打过的陀螺,久转不停。而入睡之后,梦境也是混乱不堪。我精晓那里有为数不少东西源自于心底的压力和不安,很期待内在能有所平静安详。

就像Plato所说的:我们的想法像鸟类,在大脑的封锁里飞来飞去。为了让鸟儿安定下来,有时,我们须要的刚好是一段漫无目标的熨帖时光。

各类人都梦想能体会内在的中庸安宁,但生活就像是总拿着鞭子掌控着那只陀螺,赶着你,催促你思考、盘算、布置、竞争、前进。而你的心力便要中度运转。

初涉瑜伽时,我很欣赏陶冶瑜伽姿势,磨练时能让人感受到某种程度上的“平静时光”。身体也颇有收益,不过并没有多大程度上改进睡眠质量的标题。且不可能坚称一般的瑜伽冥想训练。后来接触了瑜伽语音冥想,因为它概括命理术数、很简单推行并组成到生存中去,也就渐渐的硬挺了下去。

瑜伽语音冥想,你开玩笑的时候,能够找它,痛心的时候,也得以找它,当你陶冶得更多,内心越发喜欢瑜伽语音,就愈加能培训内在的宁静和欢悦。

做瑜伽语音冥想时,只需把心理意念休息在瑜伽语音上的演习方法,不拘泥于或坐、或躺或站的别样款式,还足以匹配各样乐器和音频。

一些人,喜欢弹唱,有的人,喜欢专注地倾听,有的人欣赏一边倾听一边跟着哼唱,或者正是背景音乐做无意识的心劳计绌,而多数人,都喜欢做群组瑜伽语音冥想操练,就是和爱人们在同步欢唱瑜伽语音。非凡不难,有趣,大家可以跟随着瑜伽语音的节奏放松自在地唱唱跳跳。还有私房独处的瑜伽语音冥想磨炼方法。

– 4 – 

篮球 1

众人都可以磨炼瑜伽语音冥想

自己想,那种概括可行的大费周章陶冶方法,对于那个总是失利于习惯培养的人,是挺好的一个开端。操练的时候,不用强迫自己去注意其中,放松就好了。而瑜伽语音,那种差距于物质声音激动的音韵,是越接触越能被里面的出色所吸引。

因它不限制格局、场所、时间、学历、年龄、性别、肉体情形,许多少人都能水滴石穿陶冶,将那种瑜伽语音冥想磨练视为好友,总是把心放在那片栖息所,放在瑜伽语音上,去取得内在的平稳。

瑜伽语音冥想,源于正统瑜伽的传承,在三十几年前由中国当代瑜伽之母张蕙兰先生分享给中华平民,如今,在举国各州,乃至社会风气上很多国家,有众多个人喜欢瑜伽语音冥想操练。

当自家在分享瑜伽语音冥想的时候,也许认识自身的有的非瑜伽朋友,会往我的随身贴“瑜伽”的标签,但瑜伽不是自身的,不是隶属何人的,不管你去不去瑜伽馆,练不磨炼瑜伽姿势,都足以把瑜伽语音冥想带走到你的生活。

蕙兰瑜伽图片

– 5-

Mr Trump is the leading exponent【2】 of “post-truth”
politics【3】
—a reliance on assertions that “feel true” but have no
basis in fact. His brazenness is not punished, but taken as evidence
of his willingness to stand up to【4】 elite power. And he is
not alone. Members of Poland’s government assert that a previous
president, who died in a plane crash, was assassinated by Russia.
Turkish politicians claim the perpetrators【5】 of the recent
bungled【6】 coup were acting on orders issued by the CIA. The
successful campaign for Britain to leave the European Union warned of
the hordes of immigrants that would result from Turkey’s imminent
accession to【7】 the union.

每个人都亟需瑜伽语音冥想

各样时期都有它某种方式的骚乱,大家处于一个好处至上的时日,无不在追求着飞速的功力。每个人都在经受着种种生活压力。

干什么越来越多卓绝的人喜好冥想?是为着让投机更加优质。何为卓越?应当是随身有众多独到之处吧。那么,那几个还地处周旋弱势的,竞争力不那么大的人,可以冥想吗?什么人应该陶冶瑜伽语音冥想吧?

当自己看到空巢老人蹒跚着,独守在生命最终的孤身岁月里,我想,他们可以练习瑜伽语音冥想吧?

当自家见状那一个并未丰裕幸运得到好的启蒙,得不到丰富关切的男女,我想,他们可以陶冶瑜伽冥想呢?

当我见到已经很拼命在办事却延续看不到出路、生活在艰苦里边的人,我想,他们可以训练瑜伽语音冥想呢?

当自家看来在生活中总是感觉虚无和孤寂而只好把头埋进手机世界的人,我想,他们可以磨炼瑜伽语音冥想呢?

我想,他们也很须要有人分享给她们瑜伽语音冥想!它可以扶助人们日益作育那么些芸芸众生都想拥有的灵魂:

政通人和的内在世界

和谐的人际关系

渐长的动感愉悦

克制困难的能力

生存的目标与意义

超生与忍耐

开朗与积极

胆子与负责

……

一旦你想开头读书瑜伽语音冥想,一个人又不知晓什么开端,上面分享的多个CCtalk免费的教程,应该对您抱有支持。(需复制链接)

打欢天喜地意冥想:http://t.cn/RHSXWHD

篮球,冥想与释压:http://t.cn/RHSX8zG

【2】exponent 能手,鼓吹者

篮球 2

【3】“post-truth” politics
后精神政治,依据wikepedia的定义,是指在政治理论中第一基于感情,脱离政治细节,重复某些论点,却忽略事实驳斥的政治知识;该词来源于David罗Berts在二零一零年Grist专栏中的小说Post-truth
politics
,在二零一六年美利哥总统选举和二〇一六年大英帝国脱欧公投中流行起来

【4】stand up to Sb 抵抗、反对某人

篮球 3

【5】perpetrator 犯罪者,作恶者,行凶者;相应动词用法perpetrate sth
(against/upon/on sb),相应名词perpetration

篮球 4

篮球 5

【6】bungle 搞砸,失败

篮球 6

【7】accession to 正式参预

篮球 7

If, like this newspaper, you believe that politics should be based on
evidence, this is worrying. Strong democracies can draw on【8】
inbuilt defences against post-truth. Authoritarian countries are more
vulnerable.

【8】draw on 利用,依赖

篮球 8

Lord of the lies

That politicians sometimes peddle lies is not news: think of Ronald
Reagan’s fib【9】 that his administration had not traded weapons
with Iran in order to secure the release of hostages and to fund the
efforts of rebels in Nicaragua. Dictators and democrats seeking to
deflect blame for their own incompetence have always manipulated the
truth; sore losers have always accused the other lot of lying.

【9】fib 无关首要的小慌

篮球 9

But post-truth politics is more than just an invention of
whingeing【10】 elites who have been outflanked【11】. The
term picks out the heart of what is new: that truth is not
falsified【12】, or contested, but of secondary importance.
Once, the purpose of political lying was to create a false view of the
world. The lies of men like Mr Trump do not work like that. They are
not intended to convince the elites, whom their target voters neither
trust nor like, but to reinforce prejudices.

【10】whinge about sb/sth 抱怨某人/某事(英帝国土话、澳大热那亚俚语]=
whine)

篮球 10

【11】outflank
占上风(这么些词由前缀out-和flank组成,out-代表超越、胜过,flank是侧面的情致,所以outflank的本心是侧翼包抄)

篮球 11

【12】falsified 篡改,伪造,名词方式为falsification;false
错误的,虚假的;falsehood 虚假性,谬误,谎言

篮球 12

Feelings, not facts, are what matter in this sort of campaigning.
Their opponents’ disbelief validates the us-versus-them mindset that
outsider candidates thrive on【13】. And if your opponents focus
on trying to show your facts are wrong, they have to fight on the
ground you have chosen. The more Remain campaigners【14】
attacked the Leave campaign’s【15】 exaggerated claim that EU
membership cost Britain £350m ($468m) a week, the longer they kept the
magnitude of those costs in the spotlight.

【13】thrive on sth 因某事而有成

篮球 13

【14】Remain campaigners留欧派;Remain campaign匡助留欧的位移;Remain
camp留欧阵营

【15】Leave campaigner 脱欧派;Leave campaign协理脱欧的运动;Leave
camp脱欧阵营

Post-truth politics has many parents. Some are noble. The questioning
of institutions and received wisdom【16】 is a democratic
virtue. A sceptical lack of deference towards leaders is the first
step to reform. 

【16】received wisdom 普遍看法

篮球 14

But corrosive forces are also at play【17】. One is anger. Many
voters feel let down and left behind, while the elites who are in
charge have thrived. They are scornful of the self-serving
technocrats【18】 who said that the euro would improve their
lives and that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass
destruction【19】
. Popular trust in expert opinion and established
institutions has tumbled across Western democracies.

【17】be at play 起效能,暴发潜移默化

篮球 15

【18】technocrat
技术官僚,技术专家官员(那个词由前缀techno-和后缀-crat组成,techno-意思是技术的,-crat或-ocrat意思是官宦)

篮球 16

【19】weapons of mass destruction 大规模杀伤性武器

Post-truth has also been abetted by the evolution of the media (see
Briefing). The fragmentation of news sources has created an atomised
world in which lies, rumour and gossip spread with alarming speed.
Lies that are widely shared online within a network, whose members
trust each other more than they trust any mainstream-media source, can
quickly take on the appearance of truth. Presented with evidence that
contradicts a belief that is dearly held, people have a tendency to
ditch the facts first. Well-intentioned journalistic practices bear
blame too. The pursuit of “fairness” in reporting often creates
phoney【20】 balance at the expense of truth. NASA scientist
says Mars is probably uninhabited; Professor Snooks says it is teeming
with aliens. It’s really a matter of opinion.

【20】phoney 虚假的;也可作名词,意为骗子

篮球 17

When politics is like pro-wrestling【21】, society pays the
cost. Mr Trump’s insistence that Mr Obama founded IS precludes a
serious debate over how to deal with violent extremists. Policy is
complicated, yet post-truth politics damns complexity as the
sleight of hand【22】 experts use to bamboozle【23】
everyone else. Hence Hillary Clinton’s proposals on paid parental
leave【24】
go unexamined (see article) and the case for trade
liberalisation is drowned out【25】 by “common sense” demands
for protection.

【21】pro-wrestling
职业摔跤(词中pro的意味是事情的);其余类似词语,如pro basketball
职业篮球

【22】sleight of hand 手腕,花招

篮球 18

【23】bamboozle 欺骗,愚弄;名词为bamboozlement

篮球 19

【24】paid parental leave 带薪产假

【25】drown out 淹没

篮球 20

It is tempting to think that, when policies sold on dodgy
prospectuses【26】
start to fail, lied-to supporters might see the
error of their ways. The worst part of post-truth politics, though, is
that this self-correction cannot be relied on. When lies make the
political system dysfunctional, its poor results can feed the
alienation and lack of trust in institutions that make the post-truth
play possible in the first place.

【26】prospectus
本意是(校园的)简介、简章,(集团的)招股章程、募股章程,那里dodgy
prospectuses是指包括欺骗性的宣传

篮球 21

Pro-truthers stand and be counted

To counter this, mainstream politicians need to find a language of
rebuttal (being called “pro-truth” might be a start). Humility and the
acknowledgment of past hubris【27】 would help. The truth has
powerful forces on its side. Any politician who makes contradictory
promises to different audiences will soon be exposed on Facebook or
YouTube. If an official lies about attending a particular meeting or
seeking a campaign donation, a trail of e-mails may catch him
out【28】
.

【27】hubris 狂妄

篮球 22

【28】catch sb out 识破(错误)

篮球 23

Democracies have institutions to help, too. Independent legal systems
have mechanisms to establish truth (indeed, Melania Trump has turned
to the law to *seek redress for**【29】*** lies about her past).
So, in their way, do the independent bodies created to inform
policy—especially those that draw on science.

【29】 redress 修正,补偿;seek redress for 讨回公道,要求赔偿损失

篮球 24

If Mr Trump loses in November, post-truth will seem less menacing,
though he has been too successful for it to go away. The deeper worry
is for countries like Russia and Turkey, where autocrats use the
techniques of post-truth to silence opponents. Cast adrift【30】
on an ocean of lies, the people there will have nothing to cling to.
For them the novelty of post-truth may lead back to old-fashioned
oppression.

【30】Cast adrift 漂流

篮球 25

【小结】

后精神政治(post-truth politics)来源于大卫罗Berts在二〇一〇年Grist专栏中的一篇作品,在二零一六年米利坚总统选举和二〇一六年英帝国脱欧公投中流行起来。川普是谎言之王(lord
of the
lies
),后精神政治的好手(exponent)。他的谈话与实际相去甚远(estranged
from
fact
)。其可耻不但没有受到惩治,反而被视为对于精英势力的反抗(stand
up to elite
power
)。然则,特朗普并非个例。土耳其共和国(Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)政客声称在近来挫败的政变(bungled
coup
)中,犯罪者(perpetrator)是奉CIA之命行事。在大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国脱欧运动(Brexit)中,留欧派(Remain
campaigners
)与脱欧派(Leave
campaigners
)相博弈,人们轻信土耳其(Turkey)将插足欧盟(accession to the
union
)爆发多量移民。政客谎言已经不是音讯。里根总统曾撒了小谎(fib),称并未与伊朗开展武器交易,以担保释放人质并捐助尼加拉瓜的反叛势力。不过,后精神政治不是一群怒形于色(whingeing)的挫败(outflanked)精英们杜撰出来的,而是映射了一个新的宗旨难点:真相没有被歪曲(falsified)或思疑,而是展现不那么首要了。比如,特朗普的谎言不是为着说服精英,而是为了深化偏见。后精神政治存在积极的一边。对现有体制和广大信念(received
wisdom
)的质询是民主的充裕浮现。但腐蚀的力量也会发出影响(at
play
)。当天才阶层日新月异(thrive),选民却感觉失落、愤怒,他们鄙视那多少个使用(draw
on
)科学手段为政策服务的技巧官僚(technocrat),也不信任主流媒体。为了追求“公平”,报道中时时就义精神以高达虚假(phoney)的平衡。当政治成为一场工作摔跤比赛(pro-wrestling),需求全社会来埋单。一些专家利用政治的错综复杂,耍弄花招(sleight
of hand
)来愚弄(bamboozle)民众。所以,希Larry提议的带薪产假(paid
parental
leave
)最后不孕症,自由贸易提案也被交易爱护需求的“常识”淹没(drowned
out
)。假如根据欺骗性宣传(dodgy
prospectuses
)的策略最后败诉,被骗的拥护者可能听君一席话胜读十年书。但那种自己校订的作用并不保证。当谎言导致政治种类功能失调,就会导致疏远感和不信任。为此,主流法学家须求保证谦虚,认同自己过去的失态(hubris)。倘诺某个政客对差距听众作出互相争辩的承诺,很快就会在脸谱或YouTube遭到暴露。要是某位官员谎称加入某个会议或筹备竞选募捐(campaign
donation
),就会有人对其邮件进行追踪,最后识破谎言(catch him
out
)。在单独的法律种类中,可以运用真相挖掘机制来对抗谎言,讨回公道(seek
redress for
lies
)。若是特朗普在十六月份输给,后精神政治或者变得不那么甚嚣尘上。但更担忧的是俄联邦和土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey),这八个国家的政客利用后精神手段强迫对手默不失声。漂流(cast
drift
)在谎言的大海中,人们将无所依靠。新兴的后精神政治或者将人们拉回了越发饱受压迫的时期。

* 注:本文仅供就学互换之用,不表示作者观点。